After one year of programing with Java, I am gradually familiar with OOP. Learning java for me, whose first programming language is C, was much more than change the name system, like field, method, reference, etc. It is almost a renewal of concept. Although so, my knowledge of Java was founded from all kinds of sources, and a book like Thinking in Java seems useful for me to introduce systematically introduce the thought behind Java.
It is important to design classes appropriately. For people who is not familiar with OOP, it can easily happen that use classes as structs and designs methods as “functions” in the outer classes. Abusing inheritance may also be a popular mistake. When the relationship between classes is “have-a”, one should use composition(or aggregation when dynamically). We should also think about it whether the relationship is “is-a” or “is-like-a”. For the former one, we may only override methods of base class, while the latter one may involves implicating new methods. When we upcasting objects to their base classes types, only methods we use substitution can be called. Otherwise, we will have to downcast the reference to call the unique methods. Although so, both the two models are useful, and the choice will be obvious for certain problems.